housands of Medicaid beneficiaries who were previously limited to receiving care in an institutional setting may now be given the option to receive that care in their homes and communities, under a proposed rule published by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (DRA) gave states a new option to provide home-and-community based services (HCBS) to Medicaid beneficiaries without applying for a demonstration waiver. The proposed rule provides guidance to states on how to implement this provision of the DRA.Under this option, states will now be able to set their own eligibility or needs-based criteria for providing HCBS. Previously, to qualify for assistance with personal care, home health care or other services in the home or community setting, beneficiaries were required to be at imminent risk of institutionalization. The DRA provision eliminates this requirement and allows states to cover Medicaid recipients who have incomes no greater than 150 percent of the federal poverty level, or $15,600 per individual in 2008, and who satisfy the needs-based criteria."Thousands more Medicaid beneficiaries may now be able to opt for needed long-term support services in their homes rather than institutions," said CMS Acting Administrator Kerry Weems. "Breaking the historic link between long-term care and institutions will level the playing field and give beneficiaries new choices for how they receive care."The proposed rule emphasizes "person centered" care, giving individuals an active role in developing their care plans, and the "self-direction" option in which states can allow individuals to take charge of their own services. The services states may make available under this benefit include case management, homemaker, home health aide, personal care, adult day health, habilitation, and respite care. The DRA also allows states to provide special services to individuals with chronic mental illness, including day treatment or other partial hospitalization, psychosocial rehabilitation, and clinic services.